Application Note 61: Photochemical bromination with elemental bromine in continuous flow

    A Vapourtec E-Series with V-3 Pumps and the UV-150 Photochemical Reactor

    In this application note, we demonstrate how to safely use solutions of bromine under a wide range of reaction conditions. This is achieved with the versatility of the Vapourtec E-series, V-3 pumps and our UV-150 photochemical reactor.

    This application describes:

    • Safe and easy pumping of an elemental bromine solution
    • Effective and repeatable photobromination in a UV-150 photochemical reactor
    • Rapid scale-up to over 10 g/hr

    Safer Handling of Bromine

    Elemental bromine is an efficient reagent for incorporating bromine into a range of benzyl, allylic and heterocyclic bromomethyl compounds but can present a hazard for handling in the laboratory. The resultant bromomethyl benzenes are often toxic and lachrymatory, and careful handling to avoid exposure is needed. Using the E-Series and UV-150 photochemical reactor it has been possible to carry out a range of photochemical brominations without needing to handle bromine, beyond making a stock solution.

    Improved reaction rates

    In the chemical literature, we found an example that required a significantly longer reaction time than any other example in the paper. Using the E-Series and UV-150 photochemical reactor, we have been able to reduce the reaction time from 7.5 minutes to 1 minute, with improved reaction yields (from 69% to 89%).

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