Green chemistry & technology enabling sustainable chemistry

    Green chemistry is also known as sustainable chemistry. It is a collection of practices guided by the twelve principles of green chemistry. The aim is to design chemical products and processes to reduce their environmental impact.

    The twelve principles cover all areas of chemistry and chemical engineering. The principals apply to the life-cycle of a chemical product from production to disposal. Using the sustainable chemistry approach, products and their manufacture are designed to reduce the need for hazardous substances. Also reducing production of hazardous waste and elimination of energy intensive processes.

    Reagentless synthesis approaches such as photochemistry and electrochemistry are particularly valuable in the drive towards green processes.  Both approaches open valuable synthetic routes without the need for catalysts or reagents.

    The principles cover all stages of production to minimise the overall impact of a product. Examples of Green chemistry practices are:

    • Designing products that are non-hazardous
    • Synthesis using renewable feedstock reagents
    • Use of non-hazardous solvents
    • Implementation of low energy production strategies

    The principles of sustainable chemistry use a “prevention is better than cure” philosophy. By not creating environmentally hazardous materials, the need to process and clean them is removed. Improving the overall efficiency of the process reduces the environmental impact of the specific chemical product.

    Technology enabling green chemistry

    Flow chemistry is ideally suited to meeting the principles of green chemistry. Flow processes are inherently safer with small reaction volumes and lower volumes of solvents and reagents needed. There is low risk of environmental exposure to reagents, and processes can be scaled without the need for re-optimisation.

    Solvent selection for green chemistry

    green chemistry solvent guide - Vapourtec

    Examples of published literature for Green chemistry & technology enabling sustainable chemistry

    Peroxidation of 2-oxindole and barbituric acid derivatives under batch and continuous flow using an eco-friendly ethyl acetate solvent

    Moreshwar B. Chaudhari a, Nirmala Mohanta a, Akanksha M. Pandey a, Madhusoodhanan Vandana b, Krishanpal Karmodiya b, Boopathy Gnanaprakasam*a

    • a Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Pune, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411008, India
    • b Department of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Pune, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411008, India
    View abstract

    Rapid and Multigram Synthesis of Vinylogous Esters under Continuous Flow: An Access to Transetherification and Reverse Reaction of Vinylogous Esters

    Nirmala Mohanta, Moreshwar B. Chaudhari, Naveen Kumar Digrawal, Boopathy Gnanaprakasam*

    • Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune 411008, India
    View abstract

    Continuous manufacturing – the Green Chemistry promise?

    Luke Rogers and Klavs F. Jensen

    • Department of Chemical Engineering, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA
    View abstract

    Using Carbon Dioxide as a Building Block in Continuous Flow Synthesis

    Hyowon Seo, Long V. Nguyen, Timothy F. Jamison

    • Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts
    View abstract

    Regioselective Chlorination of Quinoline Derivatives via Fluorine Mediation in a Microfluidic Reactor

    Hao Qi, Xin Li, Zhuang Liu, Shan‐Shan Miao, Prof. Zheng Fang, Lin Chen, Zheng Fang, Prof. Kai Guo

    • College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, China State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, China
    View abstract

    Selective N-monomethylation of primary anilines with dimethyl carbonate in continuous flow

    Hyowon Seo, Anne-Catherine Bédard, Willie P. Chen, Robert W. Hicklin, Alexander Alabugin, Timothy F. Jamison

    • Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    View abstract

    Targeting a mirabegron precursor by BH3-mediated continuous flow reduction process

    Sonia De Angelisa, Claudia Carluccia, Modesto de Candiaa, Gabriele Rebuzzinib, Paolo Celestinib, Massimiliano Riscazzib, Renzo Luisia, Leonardo Degennaroa

    • a FLAME-Lab − Flow Chemistry and Microreactor Technology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy — Drug Sciences, University of Bari “A. Moro” Via E. Orabona 4, Bari 70125, Italy
    • b COSMA S.p.A, Via Colleoni 15/17, Ciserano, BG 24040, Italy
    View abstract

    A novel micro-flow system under microwave irradiation for continuous synthesis of 1, 4-dihydropyridines in the absence of solvents via Hantzsch reaction

    Wei Hea,b, Zheng Fangb, Kai Zhangb, Tao Tua, Niuniu Lvb, Chuanhong Qiub, Kai Guob,c

    • a Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, No. 220 Handan Road, Shanghai, 200433, PR China
    • b College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Technology University, No. 30 Puzhu South Road, Nanjing, 211816, PR China
    • c State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Technology University, No. 30 Puzhu South Road, Nanjing, 211816, PR China
    View abstract

    A convenient, mild and green synthesis of NH-sulfoximines in flow reactors

    Leonardo Degennaro1, Arianna Tota1, Sonia De Angelis1, Michael Andresini1, Cosimo Cardellicchio2, Maria Annunziata Capozzi1, Giuseppe Romanazzi3, Renzo Luisi1

    • 1 University of Bari, Department of Pharmacy - Drug Sciences, Bari, Italy
    • 2 CNR ICCOM, Department of Chemistry, Bari, Italy
    • 3 Politecnico di Bari, DICATECh, Bari, Italy
    View abstract

    Efficient synthesis of 5-(chloromethyl) furfural (CMF) from high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) using continuous flow processing

    T. M. Kohla, B. Bizeta, P. Kevana, C. Sellwooda, J. Tsanaktsidisa, C. H. Hornunga

    • a CSIRO Manufacturing Flagship, Bag 10, Clayton South, Australia
    View abstract

    Reformatsky and Blaise reactions in flow as a tool for drug discovery. One pot diversity oriented synthesis of valuable intermediates and heterocycles

    L. Hucka,b, M. Bertona, A. de la Hozb, A. Díaz-Ortizb, J. Alcázar*a

    • * Corresponding author
    • a Janssen Research and Development, Janssen-Cilag, S.A., C/ Jarama 75, Toledo, Spain
    • b Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain
    View abstract

    Difluorocarbene addition to alkenes and alkynes in continuous flow

    Pauline Rullière, Patrick Cyr, André B. Charette*

    • Université de Montréal, Centre in Green Chemistry and Catalysis, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, P.O. Box 6128, Station Downtown, Québec, Canada H3C 3J7
    View abstract

    The Preparation of Ethyl Levulinate Facilitated by Flow Processing: The Catalyzed and Uncatalyzed Esterification of Levulinic Acid

    Meghan P. Negus1, Andrew C. Mansfield2, Nicholas E. Leadbeater1

    • 1 Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, 55 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269, United States
    • 2 Vapourtec Ltd., Park Farm Business Centre, Bury St. Edmunds IP28 6TS, United Kingdom
    • 3 Department of Community Medicine and Health Care, University of Connecticut Health Center, The Exchange, 263 Farmington Ave, Farmington, CT 06030, United States
    View abstract

    Flow Synthesis of 2-Methylpyridines via α-Methylation

    Camille Manansala1, Geoffrey K. Tranmer1 2 *

    • 1 College of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0T6, Canada
    • 2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
    View abstract

    Flow synthesis of a versatile fructosamine mimic and quenching studies of a fructose transport probe

    Matthew B. Plutschack1,2, D. Tyler McQuade1,2, Giulio Valenti2, Peter H. Seeberger2

    •   1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, USA
    • 2Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Germany
    View abstract

    Continuous flow macrocyclization at high concentrations: synthesis of macrocyclic lipids

    Anne-Catherine Bédard, Sophie Régnie, Shawn K. Collins

    • Département de Chimie, Centre for Green Chemistry, Catalysis, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada
    View abstract

    Continuous-flow generation of diazoesters and their direct use in S-H and P-H insertion reactions: synthesis of a-sulfanyl, a-sulfonyl and a-phosphono carboxylates

    Hannah E. Bartrum1, David C. Blakemore2, Christopher J. Moody1, Christopher J. Hayes1

    • 1School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK
    • 2Pfizer Neusentis, The Portway Building, Granta Park, Cambridge, CB21 6GS, UK
    View abstract

    Sustainable and efficient methodology for CLA synthesis and identification

    Andres Moreno, Maria Moreno, Maria Victoria Gómez, Cristina Cebrian, Pilar Prieto, Antonio de la Hoz

    • Departamento de Química Inorgánica, , Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain.
    View abstract

    Soluble Polymer-Supported Flow Synthesis: A Green Process for the Preparation of Heterocycles

    Nicolò Prosa, Raphaël Turgis, Riccardo Piccardi, Marie-Christine Scherrmann

    • Institut de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux d'Orsay, Université Paris-Sud, France
    View abstract

    Highly efficient dehydration of carbohydrates to 5-(chloromethyl)furfural (CMF), 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) and levulinic acid by biphasic continuous flow processing

    Malte Brasholz, Karin von Känel, Christian H. Hornung, Simon Saubern, John Tsanaktsidis

    • CSIRO Materials Science & Engineering, Victoria , Australia
    View abstract

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