Researchers at the University of Connecticut have utilised Vapourtec’s R-Series system to develop a catalyst free esterification of levulinic acid to ethyl levulinate, demonstrating a greener way to produce a compound heavily used in the flavour and fragrance industry.
The researchers used the high pressure R-Series pump module and stainless steel coil reactor to achieve high temperatures of 270oC and high pressures up to 200 bar safely, easily and efficiently. Their paper describes how they optimised a catalysed esterification with flow chemistry and advanced to using a catalyst free set up. They were able to reach a throughput of 8.3 g per hour with a yield of 85% uncatalysed.
The following link will take you to the Journal of Flow chemistry article
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