Preparation of Carbazoles Involving 6π-Electrocyclization, Photoredox-, Electrochemical-, and Thermal Cyclization Reactions: Mechanistic Insights

    • Ivan E.Romero
    • Prof. Dr. Al Postigo
    • Prof. Dr. Sergio M. Bonesi
    • Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires, C1428EGA, Argentina

    Carbazole is a heterocyclic motif that can be found in a diverse array of natural and unnatural products displaying a wide range of biological and physiological properties. Furthermore, this heterocycle is part of electronic materials like photoconducting polymers and organic optoelectronic materials owing to its excellent photophysical characteristics. Consequently, the development of synthetic strategies for carbazole scaffolds holds potential significance in biological and material fields. In this regard, a variety of preparation methods has been developed to exploit their efficient and distinct formation of new C−C and C-heteroatom bonds under mild conditions and enabling broad substrate diversity and functional group tolerance. Therefore, this review focuses on the synthesis of a set of carbazole derivatives describing a variety of methodologies that involve direct irradiation, photosensitization, photoredox, electrochemical and thermal cyclization reactions.

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