Polymer synthesis in continuous flow

    There is growing interest in various “Living Free Radical Polymer synthesis” techniques (in which supply of reagents can be used to control the extent or rate of the reaction), as these techniques give far more control over the size (and topology) of the molecules formed.

    Living Polymer synthesis techniques

    There are a number of different techniques for living polymer-synthesis. These include:

    • Reversible Addition Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT)
    • Atom transfer radical synthesis(ATRP)
    • Nitroxide-mediated synthesis (NMP)

    Continuous processing offers a way to carry out these processes with great repeatability and control. Inline degassing and long residence time stainless steel reactors are used, allowing materials that are very oxygen sensitive to be processed.

    Vapourtec has had the honour to work with a team of researchers at Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) in Melbourne, Australia. CSIRO’s reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) technology enables researchers to develop new and advanced materials.

    polymer synthesis

    Examples of published literature for Polymer synthesis in continuous flow

    Conjugated porous polymers for photocatalytic applications

    Y. L. Wonga, J. M. Tobinb, Z. Xua, F. Vilela*b

    • aDepartment of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong
    • bSchool of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, UK
    View abstract

    Continuous flow knitting of a triptycene hypercrosslinked polymer

    Cher Hon Lau *a, Tian-dan Lu b, Shi-Peng Sun b, Xianfeng Chen a, Mariolino Carta c, Daniel M. Dawson d

    • a School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, Robert Stevenson Road,Edinburgh EH9 3FB, UK
    • b State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech. University, Nanjing 210009, China
    • c Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Swansea University, Grove Building, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK
    • d School of Chemistry, EaStCHEM and Centre of Magnetic Resonance, University of St. Andrews, KY16 9ST, UK
    View abstract

    The Influence of Residence Time Distribution on Continuous-Flow Polymerization

    Marcus H. Reis, Travis P. Varner, Frank A. Leibfarth

    • Department of Chemistry, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    View abstract

    High-Throughput Template-Free Continuous Flow Synthesis of Polyaniline Nanofibers

    Rekha Singh†#, Karuna Veeramani†‡#, Rishab Bajpai, Anil Kumar*†‡§

    • Department of Chemistry, IITB-Monash Research Academy,§ National Centre for Excellence in Technologies for Internal Security (NCETIS), Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076, India
    View abstract

    Conjugated polymers via direct arylation polymerization in continuous flow: minimizing the cost and batch-to-batch variations for high-throughput energy conversion

    Nemal S. Gobalasingham1, Jon E. Carlé2, Frederik C. Krebs2, Barry C. Thompson1, Eva Bundgaard2, Martin Helgesen*,2

    • 1 Department of Chemistry and Loker Hydrocarbon Research Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 90089-1661
    • 2 DTU Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde, DK-4000, Denmark
    View abstract

    Polymer-supported photosensitizers for oxidative organic transformations in flow and under visible light irradiation

    John M. Tobin, Timothy J. D. McCabe, Andrew W. Prentice, Sarah Holzer, Gareth O. Lloyd, Martin J. Paterson, Valeria Arrighi, Peter A. G. Cormack, Filipe Vilela

    • School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS Scotland, United Kingdom
    • WestCHEM, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, Thomas Graham Building, 295 Cathedral Street, Glasgow, G1 1XL Scotland, United Kingdom
    View abstract

    Direct valorisation of waste cocoa butter triglycerides via catalytic epoxidation, ring-opening and polymerisation

    Dorota D Plazaa, Vinzent Strobelb, Parminder Kaur KS Heerb, Andrew B Sellarsd, Seng-Soi Hoongd, Andrew J Clarkd, Alexei A Lapkinb

    • a School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
    • b Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, UK
    • c Aachener Verfahrenstechnik – Process Systems Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
    • d Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
    View abstract

    Preparation of Forced Gradient Copolymers Using Tube-in-Tube Continuous Flow Reactors

    Simon Saubern, Xuan Nguyen, Van Nguyen, James Gardiner, John Tsanaktsidis, John Chiefari

    • CSIRO Manufacturing, Clayton, VIC, Australia
    View abstract

    γ-Glutamyl-dipeptides: Easy tools to rapidly probe the stereoelectronic properties of the ionotropic glutamate receptor binding pocket

    Lucia Tamborinia, Veronica Nicosiaa, Paola Contia, Federica Dall'Oglioa, Carlo De Michelia, Birgitte Nielsenb, Anders A. Jensenb, Darryl S. Pickeringb, Andrea Pintoa

    • a Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (DISFARM), University of Milan, Via Mangiagalli 25, 20133 Milan, Italy
    • b Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, 2100 Copenhagen OE, Denmark
    View abstract

    BODIPY-based conjugated microporous polymers as reusable heterogeneous photosensitisers in a photochemical flow reactor

    J. M. Tobina, J. Liub, H. Hayesa, M. Demleitnera, D. Ellisa, V. Arrighia, Z. Xu*b, F. Vilela*a

    • * Corresponding author
    • a School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK
    • b Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, China
    View abstract

    Triphenylphosphine-grafted, RAFT-synthesised, porous monoliths as catalysts for Michael addition in flow synthesis

    Kristine J. Barlowa, Victor Bernabeua, Xiaojuan Haoa, Timothy C. Hughesa, Oliver E. Hutta, Anastasios Polyzosa,b, Kathleen A. Turnera, Graeme Moada

    • a CSIRO Manufacturing Flagship, Bag 10, Clayton South, Victoria 3169, Australia
    • b University of Melbourne, School of Chemistry, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
    View abstract

    Photoactive and metal-free polyamide-based polymers for water and wastewater treatment under visible light irradiation

    Junjie Shena, Roman Steinbacha, John Tobina, Mayumi Mouro Nakataa, Matthew Bowerb, Martin McCoustraa, Helen Bridlea, Valeria Arrighia, Filipe Vilelaa

    • a School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, United Kingdom
    • b Drinking Water Quality Regulator for Scotland, Edinburgh, EH6 6WW, United Kingdom
    View abstract

    Continuous flow photo-initiated RAFT polymerisation using a tubular photochemical reactor

    James Gardiner a, Christian H. Hornung a, John Tsanaktsidis a, Duncan Guthrie b

    • a CSIRO Manufacturing, Bag 10, Clayton South, Victoria 3169, Australia
    • b Vapourtec Ltd, Park Farm Business Centre, Bury St Edmunds IP28 6TS, United Kingdom
    View abstract

    Electroactive and Photoactive Poly[Isoindigo-alt-EDOT] Synthesized Using Direct (Hetero)Arylation Polymerization in Batch and in Continuous Flow

    François Grenier , Badrou Réda Aïch † ‡, Yu-Ying Lai §, Maxime Guérette , Andrew B. Holmes §, Ye Tao , Wallace W. H. Wong * §, Mario Leclerc * †

    • Département de Chimie, Université Laval, Québec City, Qc G1V 0A6, Canada
    • Information and Communications Technologies Portfolio, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6, Canada
    • § School of Chemistry, Bio21 Institute, the University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
    View abstract

    Making Ends Meet: Flow Synthesis as the Answer to Reproducible High-Performance Conjugated Polymers on the Scale that Roll-to-Roll Processing Demands

    Martin Helgesen, Jon E. Carlé, Gisele A. dos Reis Benatto, Roar R. Søndergaard, Mikkel Jørgensen, Eva Bundgaard, Frederik C. Krebs

    • Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark
    View abstract

    Sequential flow process for the controlled polymerisation and thermolysis of RAFT-synthesised polymers

    CH Hornung, A Postma, S Saubern, J Chiefari

    • CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Victoria, Australia
    View abstract

    Porous, functional, poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) monoliths by RAFT polymerization

    Kristine J. Barlow (née Tan), Xiaojuan Hao, Timothy C. Hughes, Oliver E. Hutt, Anastasios Polyzos, Kathleen A. Turner, Graeme Moad

    • Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Materials Science & Engineering, Australia
    View abstract

    Controlled synthesis of poly(3-hexylthiophene) in continuous flow

    Helga Seyler, Jegadesan Subbiah, David J. Jones, Andrew B. Holmes, Wallace W. H. Wong*

    • School of Chemistry, Bio21 Institute, University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
    • *Corresponding author
    View abstract

    Synthesis of Carbohydrate-Functionalised Sequence-Defined Oligo(amidoamine)s by Photochemical ThiolEne Coupling in a Continuous Flow Reactor

    Felix Wojcik1,2, Alexander G. O'Brien1,2, Sebastian Götze1,2, Peter H. Seeberger1,2, Laura Hartmann1,2

    • 1Department of Biomolecular Systems, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam (Germany)
    • 2Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany)
    View abstract

    Synthesis of RAFT Block Copolymers in a Multi-Stage Continuous Flow Process Inside a Tubular Reactor

    Christian H. Hornung, Xuan Nguyen, Stella Kyi, John Chiefari, Simon Saubern

    • CSIRO Materials Science & Engineering, Victoria, Australia.
    View abstract

    Visible Light-Initiated Preparation of Functionalized Polystyrene Monoliths for Flow Chemistry

    Farhan R. Bou-Hamdan1, Kathleen Krüger1, Klaus Tauer1, Tyler McQuade1,3 , Peter H. Seeberger 1,2

    • 1Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces Potsdam, Germany.
    • 2Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin , Germany.
    • 3Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, USA.
    View abstract

    Integrated Continuous Processing and Flow Characterization of RAFT Polymerization in Tubular Flow Reactors

    Christian H. Hornung, Xuan Nguyen, Geoff Dumsday, Simon Saubern*

    • CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Victoria. Australia
    View abstract

    A Continuous Flow Process for the Radical Induced End Group Removal of RAFT Polymers

    Christian H. Hornung, Almar Postma, Simon Saubern, John Chiefari

    • CSIRO Materials Science & Engineering, Victoria Australia
    View abstract

    The application of a monolithic triphenylphosphine reagent for conducting Appel reactions in flow microreactors

    Kimberley A. Roper1, Heiko Lange1, Anastasios Polyzos1, Malcolm B. Berry2, Ian R. Baxendale1, Steven V. Ley1

    • 1Innovative Technology Centre, University of Cambridge
    • 2GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage, UK
    View abstract

    Continuous flow synthesis of conjugated polymers

    Helga Seyler, David J. Jones, Andrew B. Holmes, Wallace W. H. Wong

    • Bio21 Institute, University of Melbourne, Australia
    View abstract

    Controlled RAFT Polymerization in a Continuous Flow Microreactor

    Christian H. Hornung, Carlos Guerrero-Sanchez, Malte Brasholz, Simon Saubern, John Chiefari, Graeme Moad, Ezio Rizzardo, San H. Thang

    • CSIRO Materials Science & Engineering, Victoria, Australia
    View abstract

    Application Notes regarding Polymer synthesis in continuous flow

    Application Note 5: Heck C-C Coupling using a Monolithic Nanoparticular Pd[0] PACT Reactor Cartridge

    app_note05

    This Application Note illustrates how the R-2 pump/injector and R-4 flow reactor modules can be used in combination with reactor columns to perform Polymer Assisted Continuous flow-Through (PACT) chemistry.

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