Photocatalytic Hydroaminoalkylation of Styrenes with Unprotected Primary Alkylamines
- Hannah E. Askeya
- James D. Graysona
- Joshua D. Tibbettsa
- Jacob C. Turner-Dorea
- Jake M. Holmesa
- Gabriele Kociok-Kohnb
- Gail L. Wrigleyc
- Alexander J. Cresswella
- aDepartment of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, U.K.
- bMaterials and Chemical Characterisation Facility (MC), University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, U.K.
- cOncology R&D, Research & Early Development, AstraZeneca, Darwin Building, 310, Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0WG, U.K.Read the publication that featured this abstract
Catalytic, intermolecular hydroaminoalkylation (HAA) of styrenes provides a powerful disconnection for pharmacologically relevant γ-arylamines, but current methods cannot utilize unprotected primary alkylamines as feedstocks. Metal-catalyzed HAA protocols are also highly sensitive to α-substitution on the amine partner, and no catalytic solutions exist for α-tertiary γ-arylamine synthesis via this approach. We report a solution to these problems using organophotoredox catalysis, enabling a direct, modular, and sustainable preparation of α-(di)substituted γ-arylamines, including challenging electron-neutral and moderately electron-rich aryl groups. A broad range of functionalities are tolerated, and the reactions can be run on multigram scale in continuous flow. The method is applied to a concise, protecting-group-free synthesis of the blockbuster drug Fingolimod, as well as a phosphonate mimic of its in vivo active form (by iterative α-C–H functionalization of ethanolamine). The reaction can also be sequenced with an intramolecular N-arylation to provide a general and modular access to valuable (spirocyclic) 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthyridines. Mechanistic and kinetic studies support an irreversible hydrogen atom transfer activation of the alkylamine by the azidyl radical and some contribution from a radical chain. The reaction is photon-limited and exhibits a zero-order dependence on amine, azide, and photocatalyst, with a first-order dependence on styrene.
Get in touch
For more information on flow chemistry systems and services please use the contact methods below.
Call us on +44 (0)1284 728659 or Email us
The Vapourtec R-Series is, quite simply, unrivalled for flow chemistry
- Flexible |
- Precise |
The R-Series is undoubtedly the most versatile, modular flow chemistry system available today.
The Vapourtec E-Series is the perfect introductory system for flow chemistry
- Robust |
- Easy to use |
The E-Series is a robust and affordable, entry level flow chemistry system designed for reliability and ease of use.