Electrochemical reactions

    Electrochemical reactions are chemical reactions that involve the transfer of electrons from one species to another. These reactions can be either oxidation-reduction reactions, in which one species is oxidized (loses electrons) while another is reduced (gains electrons), or they can be electrolysis reactions, in which electrical energy is used to drive a non-spontaneous chemical reaction. In either case, the transfer of electrons is what sets these reactions apart from other types of chemical reactions.

    Examples of published literature for Electrochemical reactions

    Two-Step Continuous-Flow Synthesis of 6-Membered Cyclic Iodonium Salts via Anodic Oxidation

    Julian Spils1, Thomas Wirth2, Boris J. Nachtsheim1

    • 1Institute for Organic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Bremen, Leobener Straße 7, 28359 Bremen 2School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Park Place, Main Building, Cardiff CF10 3AT (UK)
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    Cobalt-electrocatalytic HAT for functionalization of unsaturated C–C bonds

    Samer Gnaima, Adriano Bauera, Hai-Jun Zhanga, Longrui Chena, Cara Gannettb, Christian A. Malapitc, David E. Hilld, David Vogtc, Tianhua Tangc, Ryan A. Daleya, Wei Haoa, Rui Zengb, Mathilde Quertenmonte, Wesley D. Beckc, Elya Kandaharid, Julien C. Vantourouta, Pierre-Georges Echeverriae, Hector D. Abrunab, Donna G. Blackmonda, Shelley D. Minteerc, Sarah E. Reismand, Matthew S. Sigmanc & Phil S. Barana

    • aDepartment of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI), La Jolla, CA, USA
    • bDepartment of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA
    • cDepartment of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
    • dThe Warren and Katharine Schlinger Laboratory for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
    • eMinakem Recherche, Beuvry-la-Forêt, France
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    Sustainable Synthesis of Noroxymorphone via a Key Electrochemical N-Demethylation Step

    Florian Sommera,b, Roman Gerber Aeschbacherc, Urs Thurnheerc, C. Oliver Kappea,b, David Cantilloa,b

    • aInstitute of Chemistry, University of Graz, NAWI Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28, 8010, Graz, Austria
    • bCenter for Continuous Flow Synthesis and Processing (CCFLOW), Research Center, Pharmaceutical Engineering GmbH (RCPE), Inffeldgasse 13, 8010 Graz, Austria.
    • bAZAD Pharma AG, Durachweg 15, CH-8200 Schaffhausen, Switzerland
    View abstract

    An electrochemical γ-C–H arylation of amines in continuous flow

    José A.Fornia, Milena L.Czyza, David W.Luptonb, Anastasios Polyzosa,c

    • aSchool of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Victoria, Australia
    • bSchool of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria, Australia
    • cCSIRO Manufacturing, Research Way, Clayton VIC 3168, Australia
    View abstract

    Supporting-Electrolyte-Free Anodic Oxidation of Oxamic Acids into Isocyanates: An Expedient Way to Access Ureas, Carbamates, and Thiocarbamates

    Alessia Pettia, Corentin Fagnana, Carlo G. W. van Melisa, Nour Tanbouzab, Anthony D. Garciaa, Andrea Mastrodonatoa, Matthew C. Leecha, Iain C. A. Goodalla, Adrian P. Dobbsa, Thierry Ollevierb, Kevin Lam*a

    • aSchool of Science, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, Chatham, Kent ME4 4TB, U.K.
    • bDépartement de Chimie, Université Laval, 1045 avenue de la Médecine, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
    View abstract

    Flow electrochemistry: a safe tool for fluorine chemistry

    Bethan Wintersona, Tim Rennigholtza, Thomas Wirtha

    • aSchool of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Park Place, Main Building, Cardiff, Cymru/Wales, UK
    View abstract

    Flow Electrosynthesis of Sulfoxides, Sulfones, and Sulfoximines without Supporting Electrolytes

    Nasser Amri1 and Thomas Wirth1

    • 1School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Main Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT, United Kingdom
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    Accelerating Electrochemical Synthesis through Automated Flow: Efficient Synthesis of Chalcogenophosphites

    Nasser Amri, Thomas Wirth*

    • School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff, CF10 3AT, UK
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    Making electrochemistry easily accessible to the synthetic chemist

    Christiane Schotten*a, Thomas P. Nichollsa, Richard A. Bourneb, Nikil Kapurc, Bao N. Nguyena, Charlotte E. Willans*a

    • aSchool of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.
    • bSchool of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    • cSchool of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    View abstract

    Automated Electrochemical Selenenylations

    Nasser Amri, Thomas Wirth

    • School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff, CF10 3AT, UK
    View abstract

    Electroorganic Synthesis under Flow Conditions

    Mohamed Elsherbini, Thomas Wirth

    • School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Main Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT, United Kingdom
    View abstract

    Continuous‐Flow Electrochemical Generator of Hypervalent Iodine Reagents: Synthetic Applications

    Dr Mohamed Elsherbini, Bethan Winterson, Haifa Alharbi, Ana A. Folgueiras-Amador, Clina Gnot, Thomas Wirth

    • School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Main Building, Park Place, Cardiff, CF10 3AT UK
    View abstract

    Flow Electrochemical Cyclizations via Amidyl Radicals: Easy Access to Cyclic Ureas

    Nisar Ahmeda,b*, Aggeliki Vgenopouloua

    • a School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff, CF10 3AT, UK
    • b School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TS, UK
    View abstract

    Efficient Flow Electrochemical Alkoxylation of Pyrrolidine-1-Carbaldehyde

    Nasser Amria, Ryan A. Skiltonb, Duncan Guthrieb, Thomas Wirth*a

    • a School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff, CF10 3AT, UK
    • b Vapourtec Ltd., 21 Park Farm Business Centre, Bury St Edmunds, IP28 6TS, UK
    View abstract

    Application Notes regarding Electrochemical reactions

    Application Note 64: Direct electrochemical oxidation of 4- tert-butyltoluene

    Reaction-scheme-Vapourtec-application-note-64-1024x497

     

    This application note demonstrates the use of the Vapourtec Ion electrochemical reactor for the direct oxidation of 4-tert-butyltoluene into 4-tert-butyl benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal. After optimization of this key reaction, the desired product was afforded in a yield of 88%.

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    Application Note 63: Electrochemical pathway for cross coupling of organic halides – Csp2-Csp3 bonding

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    We now present a new application note prepared from work undertaken by New Path Molecular Research Ltd.  This research project uses the Vapourtec Ion electrochemical reactor for the reductive cross-electrophile coupling of organic halides, constructing a Csp2-Csp3 bond. After optimization of this key reaction, the desired product was afforded in a yield of 81%.

    In 2017, Pfizer revealed a reductive cross coupling reaction to construct Csp2-Csp3 bonds from organic halides in a batch electrochemical system (Perkins, Pedro, & Hansen, 2017). An electrochemical protocol was used to reduce a nickel catalyst (NiII to Ni0 or NiIII to NiII according to literature).  In the application note presented by Vapourtec this same reaction is optimised under continuous flow conditions using the Vapourtec Ion electrochemical reactor.

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